In its 2014 report, the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea concluded that there were reasonable grounds to believe that crimes against humanity had been committed and continued to be committed in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. It highlighted that the gravity, scale and nature of those violations revealed a State that did not have any parallel in the contemporary world. The crimes against humanity listed by the commission included extermination, murder, enslavement, torture, imprisonment, rape, forced abortions and other forms of sexual violence, persecution on political, religious, racial and gender grounds, the forcible transfer of populations, enforced disappearances and the inhumane act of knowingly causing prolonged starvation. The UN High Commissioner’s report to the Human Rights Council in March 2021 found that analysis of available information by the office confirms that there are reasonable grounds to believe that crimes against humanity may have been committed and may be ongoing in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The Government of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea bears the primary responsibility to investigate and hold accountable those responsible for crimes against humanity. It, however, continues to reject outright all allegations of serious human rights violations in the country despite ample evidence from the United Nations and other organizations. Prosecution of the alleged international crimes committed in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea must remain a priority, whether through referral of the situation to the International Criminal Court or the establishment of an ad hoc tribunal or other comparable mechanism. Accountability measures must also ensure the right of victims and societies to know the truth about violations, the right of victims to reparations, and guarantees of non-recurrence of violations.